Almost every adult remembers from childhood a pleasant-tasting candy caramel called "Barberry". This candy is named after the shrub of the same name, which has recently become popular with gardeners in our country. Common barberry is a pretty ornamental shrub, especially during flowering and ripening of fruits.
The plant is grown not only for decorating a summer cottage, but also for harvesting, because from its sour berries wonderful compotes and syrups, jams and jelly, liqueurs and liqueurs, marshmallows and jellies are obtained.
Armenian and Georgian cuisines cannot do without barberry, whose pickled berries give a special touch to dishes of lamb, poultry, veal, rice and vegetables.
According to the description, Barberry ordinary is thorny shrub, reaching a height of 2-2.5 m... Its elongated shoots and trunks are covered with thorns, which allows the plant to be used as a reliable hedge, planting several bushes in a row at a close distance from each other.
On the shortened shoots, successive obovate or elliptical leaves are formed. The leaves are not large in size: the average length is 4 cm, the width is 2 cm.
Foliage looks especially beautiful in autumnwhen its color becomes bright red or red-burgundy.
Barberry shoots grow arched in different directions, creating a spreading crown that is easy to shape by pruning.
The creeping rhizomes of the shrub are located in the surface layer of the soil and lignify over time. The bark of the trunks is light brown.
Barberry blooms in April-Mayforming clusters of 15-25 yellow flowers. The plant is an excellent honey plant - aromatic, delicately sweet honey is obtained from pollen. You can admire the flowering of the shrub for three weeks.
In place of flowers bright red oblong berries ripen in September-October, tart-sour taste. The average length of each berry is 1.5 cm and the weight is about 4 g.
Unripe berries, due to the high content of alkaloids, are poisonous and unsuitable for food.
Growing conditions for common barberry
Barberry grows almost everywhere: in Central Asia, southern and central Europe, Eastern Siberia and North America. The plant is found in the mountains of the Caucasus and Crimea, which, according to biologists, are its homeland.
Barberry has good winter hardiness and heat resistance., therefore, among gardeners, he gained fame as an unpretentious and easy-to-care crop that is undemanding to soil fertility and can be successfully grown on poor soils.
The plant is more suitable for neutral soils with an acidity index of no higher than 7.0. Sour soil before planting is lime, slaked lime, wood ash or ground chalk.
The only requirement that barberry makes to the place of growth - deep occurrence of groundwater and the absence of prolonged seasonal rains, since excess moisture is detrimental to the plant.
Barberry can be successfully grown in metropolitan areas. If many plants do not tolerate urban air pollution, wither and die from dust and gas, then barberry "bad" ecology is not terrible.
Good illumination is an important condition for abundant fruiting.therefore it is recommended to choose a sunny place for planting. If the plant is planted in partial shade, it will significantly reduce the yield.
Landing in open ground
Planting barberry in open ground is carried out both in autumn and spring.
Autumn planting is preferable, because in the spring the shrub starts growing very early. If necessary, spring planting is carried out before bud break.
2-3-year-old seedlings are suitable for planting, although older plants (6-7 years) are also well accepted. For the future shrub, a hole is prepared with a depth of 40 cm and a diameter of about 50 cm.
Fertile soil and fertilizers are poured at the bottom of the pit:
- rotted manure or compost;
- potash fertilizer - 2 tbsp. l (or 2 glasses of ash);
- superphosphate - 1 glass.
Fertilizers are mixed with fertile soil so that the roots of the seedling do not come into contact with chemicals. After that, the barberry is placed in a prepared hole, covered with earth and tamped down with a foot.
In conclusion the trunk circle is watered and mulched with humus or peat.
By planting barberry on the site, you can get medicinal raw materials, because all parts of the shrub contain nutrients... The healing power of the plant has been known since ancient times and was used by the healers of Babylon and India.
Harvesting of leaves for the preparation of medicinal drugs, they are carried out during the budding and flowering of the plant. They contain vitamin C, carotenoids and mineral salts.
Barberry rhizomes also used for treatment, they are harvested in early spring, until the buds have blossomed, or in the fall after harvesting the fruits.
All parts of the shrub contain the alkaloid berberine, which is used to treat gallbladder diseases and malignant neoplasms.
Barberry-based preparations have different medicinal properties:
- reduce the tone of the gallbladder;
- stimulate muscle contraction;
- lower blood sugar levels;
- have an analgesic effect;
- are able to narrow blood vessels and stop bleeding;
- are anti-inflammatory;
- lower blood pressure;
- destroy the infection in the intestines and liver;
- are an effective antiparasitic agent;
- cope with psoriasis and eczema;
- have a bactericidal effect;
- relieve general fatigue.
Depending on the therapeutic goals use decoctions from leaves, bark or rhizomes... Broths are not only taken orally, but also used externally for washing wounds and sore eyes.
Preparations with barberry in compresses and rubbing are effective for osteochondrosis, radiculitis, rheumatism and arthritis. Water infusion from the bark is used for sore throat to gargle.
Barberry berries contain acids - lemon, tartaric and apple. Berry juice improves appetite and relieves constipation with a mild laxative effect.
Reception of barberry fruits with honey is prescribed after radiation exposure as a means of increasing the body's defenses.
Even the flowers of the plant are used for medicinal purposes. for problems with the cardiovascular system, preparing water decoctions from them.
We cultivate barberry in the country:
Caring for barberry is not a big problem. The plant needs infrequent watering, loosening and weeding, feeding and formative pruning.
Watering and weeding
Given the intolerance to moisture stagnation by shrubs, often you do not need to water the barberry... In normal weather with sufficient rainfall, the plant does not need additional moisture.
But during the dry heat, the barberry should be watered once a week with warm water, avoiding it getting on the leaves. Weekly watering is necessary for young seedlings for better survival in a new place.
In the process of growing barberry, it is necessary regularly remove abundant root growth and weeds... After weeding, it is advisable to loosen to a depth of 5-8 cm in order to provide oxygen access to the roots.
If, when planting barberry, the recommendations for the introduction of complex and organic fertilizers were followed, it is not necessary to feed the plant in the first year after planting.
Next year starting from spring, under each barberry bush, 20-30 g of urea diluted in 10 liters of water is added... Such feeding is carried out every three years.
When growing a plant for the purpose of obtaining a harvest, barberry is fed after flowering and in early autumn with potassium and phosphorus.
For these purposes, use ready-made complex fertilizers ("Kemira universal" and analogues) or potash fertilizer and superphosphate, 10-15 g of each substance.
The shrub grows rather slowly, giving an increase of 30 cm per year, but from the first years it needs pruning.
Sanitary pruning. Sick, dry and thickening branches are regularly cut out.
Formative pruning. The formation of a barberry crown is reduced to regulating the number of branches. To do this, you need to decide for what purpose the shrub is grown.
If harvesting is a priority, then the bush is thinned out more, otherwise, with strong thickening, fruiting sharply decreases.
Rejuvenation. Over time, the barberry grows old and needs rejuvenating pruning, in which the old branches are cut out entirely and new ones are formed instead.
Prune in early spring before the buds begin to bud. Do not get carried away and do not greatly shorten the branches. remember, that barberry blooms and bears fruit mainly on annual shoots.
Protection against diseases and pests
Barberry is susceptible to attack by various insect pests and fungal infections, but the main danger to the plant is rust, powdery mildew and barberry aphid.
Rust and powdery mildew... Rust appears as orange spots on the upper side of the leaves. On the underside of the leaves, convex orange “pads” appear, in which spores of the puccinia fungus are formed.
If the disease becomes threatening, then the shoots begin to dry out, and the leaves begin to fall off. The close proximity of barberry bushes to fields of wheat, oats and other cereals threatens the spread of rust.
Treat the infection with a solution of colloidal sulfur (1.5%) or Bordeaux liquid (1-3%)... Treatment begins in the first days after the leaves bloom and is repeated twice more every three weeks.
Powdery mildew manifests itself as a white or grayish bloom and affects not only leaves, but also shoots with berries.
To combat the disease, colloidal sulfur (0.5% solution) or fungicidal preparations are used, the choice of which is quite large. Affected leaves and shoots must be cut out and burned.
Barberry aphid... The scourge of barberry is an aphid that settles in flowers and on the underside of leaves. If medical measures are not taken in time, the plant will lose its decorative effect in a few days.
There are several ways to combat barberry aphids:
- For prophylaxis, in the spring, barberry is sprayed with a solution of laundry soap (1 piece per 10 liters of water).
- To prevent an aphid attack, the bushes are treated with a tobacco solution prepared from 0.5 kg of tobacco and 10 liters of water. For better adhesion, laundry soap is added to the solution.
- Folk remedies are effective: decoctions and infusions of bitter pepper, garlic, marigolds and other plants that repel small pests.
- Insecticidal preparations ("Fitoverm", "Decis" and similar), which are used both for the prevention and for the destruction of colonies of barberry aphid, help well.
Barberry is a beautiful shrub with an Arabic name... It is used in landscape design as an ornamental plant or hedge, which, thanks to thorns, serves as reliable protection.
Barberry is attractive throughout the growing season: in spring - fragrant delicate inflorescences, in autumn - with clusters of red berries and purple foliage.
Given the unpretentiousness of the plant, even an inexperienced summer resident can cope with it, and the plant will thank it with a harvest of useful berries for easy care.
Distribution and ecology [edit | edit code]
It grows on forest edges, slopes, lawns in the mountains up to 2000 m. Prefers light and dry areas. It is also found on chalk outcrops and river gravels.
Common barberry (like a number of other species) is the intermediate host of the rust fungus Puccinia graminiscausing stem (linear) rust of cereals. In this regard, the cultivation of barberry near grain is unacceptable.
Where does it grow
In its natural environment, common barberry grows mainly in the forest-steppe zone and mountainous areas. Prefers shady places, although it feels good in sunny areas. The unpretentiousness of the shrub allowed it to spread almost everywhere, so it can be found both at the dacha near Moscow and on the terrace of the Mediterranean coast.
Description of common barberry
Barberry is undemanding to soil, drought-resistant, winter-hardy. Gets a brighter color in well-lit areas. Handles urban conditions satisfactorily. Honey plant. Bears fruit annually from 7 years old.
Reproduction of barberry: Common barberry propagates by seeds (in autumn - freshly harvested, in spring - after two months of stratification) and green cuttings.
Application in the garden: Use barberry in single and group plantings, non-cut hedges. Affected by rust.
Varieties and types of barberry: It tolerates cutting well and is not affected by rust. Another decorative representative of this genus is the Thunberg barberry (V. thun-bergii). His homeland is China and Japan. The cultivation conditions are practically the same.
Source: V.V. Chub, Yu.V. Maleeva "Modern Garden"
Common barberry. Description1 4056 Thank you, useful article + 5
Common barberry (Berberis vulgaris). This is the most common and unpretentious of barberries. It grows in the forest-steppe zone of central and southern Russia, as well as in the Crimea and the Caucasus, where it is found on forest edges, among shrubs and on the slopes of ravines, and prefers well-calcareous soils. Common barberry is a frost-resistant and drought-tolerant species.
It is a thorny bush tall no more than 2.5 m, with yellowish-brown shoots, arcuate diverging from the base of the bush, and ovoid leaves with a finely serrated edge. Leaves are sitting on shortened shoots in small bunches, and on ordinary shoots they are arranged alternately. Spines up to 2 cm long. In autumn on against the background of yellowing foliage, bright red clusters of juicy berries are clearly visible. They have a sour, pleasantly refreshing taste, are quite edible and suitable for all types of processing. Berries barberry contains about 5.5% sugars and up to 60 mg% vitamin C. Even sour leaves are suitable for salads and various marinades.
Common barberry has many decorative forms, but the most famous and widespread form with dark red leaves - f. atropurpurea. Orange flowers, reddish below, look very impressive against the background of dark leaves. In August, numerous dark red oblong fruits (about 1 cm long) ripen. On a personal plot one or more barberry bushes f. atropurpurea is best planted in a well-lit place, then the color of the leaves will show up in full. Propagate this shape it is possible by seeds, since the sign of the purple color of the foliage is almost completely inherited, as well as vegetatively - by dividing the bush, by green cuttings, the rooting rate of which is very high. ...
In addition, the common barberry is cultivated f. albo-variegata - a short bush (less than 1 m) with variegated white-green leaves, G aigeo-marginata - dark green leaves with a golden border, f. asperma - blankets of which do not contain seeds, f. macrocatpa - with larger fruits than the natural species, f. serrata - with deep toothed leaves, f. sulcata - with strongly ribbed shoots. These forms have shown themselves well in Ukraine and in the southern regions of Russia.
The most pleasant taste fruits in f. duclis, it is good for various types of processing.
From alkaloidscontained in the roots of common barberry, get berberine, which lowers blood pressure, and it also enhances choleretic activity. Barberry alkaloids are part of the drug cholelitin. Solid wood is used for small crafts.Ripe fruits, when added with alum, dye wool, leis and cotton pink. A yellow dye for wool and leather is obtained from the roots.
Barberry breeds common by dividing the bush, root suckers, summer cuttings and seeds. For spring sowing, stratification is required from 2 to 5 months, at a temperature of 2-5'C. It should be noted that this species is damaged by powdery mildew, which can reduce its decorative qualities, and is an intermediate host of the rusty fibok that infects cereals.
Folk remedies based on common barberry
The leaves of the barberry and its bark are harvested during the flowering of the plant, while sick, damaged leaves must be discarded. The barberry spines are very sharp and can interfere with the preparation, so it is better to put on thick canvas mittens before work. The barberry root is harvested in spring, autumn, digging in a bush and cutting down a 10 cm long part of the root. Berries should be taken after full ripeness, in September-August. Raw materials are dried in the shade, stored for 3 years in a dark place.
From uterine bleeding
Barberry leaves are widely used for female diseases, as they are a good hemostatic agent. Stopping uterine bleeding is a useful property of barberry: if there are no contraindications, tincture is useful for this purpose. At 20 gr. barberry leaves are poured in 100 ml of vodka, left in a warm place for 15 days, until a dark yellow acidic liquid is obtained. They drink it 30 drops three times a day, the course is 14 days.
Barberry flowers from coronary heart disease
For the treatment of coronary artery disease, as well as other heart diseases, the flowers of the plant are used. A teaspoon of barberry flowers is brewed with a glass of water, infused for an hour. Then they drink 100 ml twice a day for 1 month. After 2 months, repeat the course.
Barberry bark from chronic hepatitis
The bark of the bush is excellent for many chronic liver pathologies, including hepatitis, after suffering from jaundice. A teaspoon of bark is brewed in a thermos with 250 ml of water overnight, an infusion of 2 tablespoons is taken three times a day for 14 days.
From dislocations and sprains
For severe injuries, poorly healing fractures, dislocations, as well as burns and other violations of the integrity of the skin and bones, it is useful to use barberry root. If there are not enough raw materials for the manufacture of a drug, it can be supplemented with twigs and leaves of the plant, even barberry spines are suitable for this purpose.
Two tablespoons of barberry root are poured into 600 ml of boiling water, the product is boiled over low heat for 10 minutes, and insisted for another 2 hours. The prepared broth is diluted 1: 1 with milk (do this just before taking), drink 100 ml three times a day for at least a week.
The infusion of barberry bark has worked well for joint diseases, especially those that are accompanied by severe pain. 1.5 tablespoons of plant bark are boiled in 400 ml of boiling water in a water bath for 30 minutes, allowed to cool. Moisten the lotions in the broth, apply to the diseased area of the body for half an hour. The procedure is repeated daily for 7-10 days.
Berries and leaves of barberry for chronic diarrhea
Berries and leaves of barberry, mixed equally, need to be brewed with hot water (a tablespoon of raw materials in a glass of water), add a pinch of cinnamon. Leave the infusion for an hour, then strain, add honey to taste. Drink 2 servings daily on an empty stomach to treat chronic diarrhea and bowel pain. The course is 1-2 weeks.
For poor digestion and lack of appetite
Combine equally the leaves and tops of wormwood and barberry leaves, brew a tablespoon of raw materials with 300 ml of water, let it brew. Take 3 tablespoons three times daily on an empty stomach until appetite problems stop showing.
Barberry berries from chronic cholecystitis
Squeeze the juice from the berries of barberry, drink 1 tablespoon of juice a day to get rid of problems with the gallbladder. If only dried berries are available, they need to be poured with a small amount of cold clean water, left for 12 hours. Then rub the berries through a sieve or chop with a blender, squeeze the juice. Accept in a similar way.
Combine equally the bark and roots of the plant, grind into crumbs. Pour 400 ml of boiling water over a heaped teaspoon of raw materials, cook for 5 minutes, cool. Drink 100 ml three times a day for 1 month. This remedy is also suitable for for the treatment of pleurisy.
- Common barberry: Taxonomy on the GRIN website Retrieved October 23, 2008.
- Common barberry on the USDA NRCS website Retrieved October 23, 2008.
- Common barberry in the Encyclopedia of Ornamental Garden PlantsRetrieved October 23, 2008.
|This is a stub on botany. You can help the project by correcting and supplementing it.|
This page uses content section of Wikipedia in Russian... The original article is located at: Common barberry. A list of the original authors of the article can be viewed at revision history... This article, as well as the article posted on Wikipedia, is available under CC-BY-SA.