Cherry is perhaps the most traditional culture in Russian gardens. There are many varieties of it - both old, folk selection, and modern. The times of noble nests and Chekhov's cherry orchards have sunk into oblivion. On small, as a rule, plots of land, a modern gardener should try to fit other fruit trees. And yet there is a way to have a whole collection of cherry varieties - grafting.
Grafting refers to vegetative propagation of plants. Its use can help out if:
- the old variety does not suit, and I want to replace it without wasting time growing from a seedling;
- caught a self-infertile variety - the planted cherry blossoms but does not set fruit;
- some the tree in the garden brokebut a living root remained;
- I want to have several different varieties, but the area of the site is too small.
What can you plant cherries on
Even novice fruit growers have heard the terms "scion" and "rootstock". The stock is a plant, which is being vaccinated. Graft - stalk or the axillary bud of the plant to be grafted.
The procedure always starts with the selection of the rootstock... It is on him that not only the productivity of the tree depends, but also the size and taste of the fruits. The first thing to pay attention to is plant compatibility. Here's a simple rule of thumb: the closer the relationship, the better.
Cherry compatibility with various rootstocks
|Rootstock||Compatibility degree||Features of the|
|Cherry wild||Very high||One of the best rootstock options. It is not difficult to get a seedling of a wild cherry, and the risk of scion rejection is minimal. The plant gets hardiness and adaptability to climatic conditions from the rootstock, but it can give root shoots.|
|Cultivar cherry||Very high||An excellent option for growing several varieties on a common trunk. But in this case, you need to ensure that the flowering dates of the varieties coincide.|
|Bird cherry||High||On a bird cherry stock, the scion almost always takes root perfectly. Such manipulation is especially beneficial in the northern regions: the bird cherry gives the cherry frost resistance and disease resistance.|
|Plum||High||It is better to take semi-wild seedlings as a rootstock, but you can also plant cherries on a varietal plum growing in the garden.|
|The turn||Good||Very good, but a little uncomfortable rootstock for cherries. The turne throws out a lot of root suckers, and it is quite troublesome to deal with them.|
|Cherry plum||Good||Universal rootstock for stone fruits. Good for its exceptional endurance.|
Some experimental fruit growers try themselves in the role of Michurin and try to plant cherries on an apple or pear. Indeed, these plants belong to the same botanical family - Pink. However, the relationship between them is "cousin". Apple trees and pears - from the Apple subfamily (popularly called "seed"), and cherry and sweet cherry - from the subfamily Plum ("Stone fruits"). Therefore, such a transplant will not lead to success.
Cherries, like other stone fruits, do not take root well on perennial wood. Vaccination will be more successful on young trees or branches.
When to vaccinate, in spring or summer?
The optimal time for the operation is dictated by the physiology of the plant.... It is better for inexperienced "transplantologists" to choose the time before the start of sap flow - early spring. This is due to a small nuance: if you are a little late, the juice on the slices will oxidize, which will prevent the cuttings or buds from starting.
You can plant cherries later. Grafting with green cuttings in summer is quite successfully practiced.... However, firstly, they should be performed very quickly and accurately in order to prevent the formation of an oxide film. It takes sleight of hand and dexterity. Secondly, it is important to choose the right weather and not delay the procedure until the end of summer.
Where to get cuttings for grafting
It is usually advised to harvest cherry cuttings in the fall, after leaf fall, before the arrival of frost. However, keeping them until spring is a daunting task for novice gardeners. It is necessary to ensure such conditions that the branches remain moderately moist, but do not rot; did not freeze, but did not wake up ahead of time... To save yourself from these worries, there are two ways: buy grafting material in a garden center or cut it yourself in the spring.
Nurseries have special rooms where cuttings are kept at the optimum temperature and humidity. Before inoculation, you only need to refresh the sections. An economical option: buy one stalk and remove several eyes from it.
You can cut the material yourself by negotiating with neighbors or relatives. In the experience of many gardeners, grafting with fresh cuttings is often more successful than "autumn" cuttings, even when stored in ideal conditions..
In the spring, cherry cuttings are harvested as follows:
- Examine the mother plant and choose a good shoot of last year's growthbut. It is easy to distinguish them: the bark on them is reddish, thin, glossy and shiny.
- Check to the shoot had only leafy (pointed) buds... The fact is that cherries most often bear fruit precisely on last year's growths, so flower (rounded) buds can be laid on them.
- Cut the shoot with a pruner, remove the apical bud and cut the "pencils" 25-30 cm long. 3-4 buds should remain on each cutting.
The prepared material can be wrapped in damp gauze so that the cuttings do not dry out.
An overview of the main ways of grafting cherries
Garden "surgeons" have developed a variety of methods of vaccination. The simplest and most accessible for beginners - budding, simple copulation and grafting into cleft.
Cherry budding: procedure
The essence of the method is the transfer of the axillary bud of the cherry to the stock. In this case, the inoculum is called the "eye". To carry out the operation, you will need a perfectly sharp, clean knife (you can use a clerical one, but it is desirable to have an eyepiece) and PVC tape. It is better to cut the eyes just before the procedure..
- A good kidney is chosen on the handle... It must be cut off along with a part of the bark (shield). The length of the shield is about 2 cm. The grafting material is placed on a clean, damp cloth so that the cut does not dry out.
- On the selected part of the rootstock a T-shaped incision is made with a knife on the bark.
- The incision flaps gently retract the peephole is inserted and pressed tightly by the flaps from above so that only the kidney looks out.
- The structure is wrapped the back of the tape so that the bark does not break when it is removed.
Some gardeners, fearing recurrent spring frosts, create a greenhouse from plastic bags around the grafting. Here you need to weigh everything well. The risk of "boiling" your vaccine under active sun may be higher than the risk of freezing it.
Budding is the least traumatic method of vaccination. Even if something goes wrong and the peephole does not take root, the plant will quickly heal a small superficial wound.
This method is not only uncomplicated, but also gives the highest survival rate. According to the observations of gardeners, out of every ten grafts in the cleft, nine are taken.
Unlike budding, here a whole stalk acts as a grafting material. Of the tools you will need pruning shears or garden saw, a sharp clean knife (better copulation, but you can do with the usual one), duct tape and garden var.
- The cutting is being prepared with 3-4 good kidneys. Its lower end is cut with a knife into a double wedge. The length of the cut should be three times the thickness of the shoot. The handle is wrapped in a damp, clean cloth.
- If the rootstock diameter is large, an even cut is made to the desired height... If the scion and rootstock are of approximately equal thickness, a pruner is used.
- A knife is placed along the line of the diameter of the saw cut, and an incision is made to a depth of 3 or 4 cm... To prevent the split from closing, you can insert a temporary peg spacer into it.
- The stalk is cut into the split to the full depth... If the stock is thick, the cutting should be inserted at the very edge so that the bark coincides with the bark, and the cambium with the cambium. If possible, you can start two scions at once in one split - from two edges.
- The stock is tightly wrapped in a spiral with the reverse side of electrical tape... It is important to ensure perfect adherence to all scion and rootstock tissues.
- The end area of the split is hermetically covered with garden varnish... The tops of the cuttings are also processed.
Today, special grafting waxes and mastics are available in gardening stores. They contain phytohormones that stimulate the fastest growing together, and fungicides to protect the vaccine against fungus.
This method is suitable when the diameters of the rootstock and scion match. For work, you will need a pruner, a copulating or ordinary sharp knife, electrical tape and a device for correcting the cutting angle. The latter can be easily done by hand. A small diameter metal or plastic tube is cut at an acute angle (about 30⁰) - and you're done. Vaccination is performed according to the scheme:
- The handle is inserted into the tube so that its lower end looks out a little.
- With a knife a cut is made exactly along the cutting line of the tube.
- The stock is shortened with pruning shears to the desired height... A tube is put on it and a similar cut is made.
- The stalk is applied to the stock with a cut to cut... All fabrics must match perfectly.
- The connection is firm wrapped with electrical tape.
Simple copulation is good for its simplicity and good survival rate. But it has a drawback: insufficient strength at the point of fusion. Cherries have fragile wood, and the strength of the bond with the stock is extremely important when grafting.... In this sense, the budding method is much more reliable.
When grafting into the crown of a tree, you need to choose a place closer to the central conductor. This will provide the scion with adequate nutrition and reduce the risk of shoot breakage.
Whether the vaccine was successful or not becomes visible after a week or two. If the buds start to grow, then the material takes root normally.... You do not need to remove the tape. In the coming year, a callus influx will form at the fusion site - a thickening similar to a callus. Next spring it will be possible to remove the remnants of the duct tape and wait for the harvest.
Cherry grafting is an exciting activity, akin to a scientific experiment. It gives a lot of room for creativity and even a novice gardener can do it.
Step-by-step instructions on how to properly plant cherries on cherries and the timing of the procedure for beginners
Grafting is a useful and necessary procedure aimed at multiplying and breeding the desired varieties of fruit trees. Therefore, any gardener should know about the technologies of how to properly graft cherries onto cherries and not be afraid to apply them in practice. Moreover, a grafted cherry can present its owner with rich yields of bulk berries much earlier in time than ordinary young seedlings.
Imagine that sweet cherry is not adapted to life in the conditions of our Russian winter, and it does not have covering varieties. It's still a tree, you can't hide it so easily. But there is cherry, many varieties of which are perfectly adapted to our frosts, and its relationship with cherries makes it possible to form a wonderful union that can solve all problems. But just to create this union, you need to try.
This is what a successfully grafted cherry stalk looks like on a cherry
It is possible to inoculate cherries on cherries only at the end of March, within a two-week period. After its expiration, the processes of sap flow begin in the fibers of plants, buds begin to fill. Having missed a favorable moment, there is no need to hope for a positive outcome. Everything is decided in these two weeks.
The best varieties of cherries for grafting are Mayak, Ural ruby or Late pink - they significantly increase the frost resistance of cherries. The tree cherry grows too much and becomes difficult to cover, so it is not suitable for rootstock.
Step-by-step instructions for the procedure
For novice gardeners, there are instructions for grafting cherries in one way or another.
It is possible to inoculate a cherry using a cuttings - the so-called copulation, and a bud - in the form of budding.
Copulation is suitable for twigs with the same size, with the most suitable diameter of 1.5 centimeters. Slices must be carried out at the ends of both the scion and the rootstock. The size of the cut should be within 3-4 centimeters.
After such preparatory work, both sections must be connected, so that the cambial layers coincide in area. Wrap the place of confluence with a special material, in the form of, for example, a film, or carry out special processing using the so-called garden varnish.
Important! To protect the future tree from possible infection, it is recommended that the wound surface of the plant be treated with special antibacterial agents.
For the bark
In order to properly graft the cherry on the bark, and before the peak of sap flow, you must first free the rootstock from twigs. Then prepare cuttings for him - from 2 to 4 pieces, with transverse cuts at the ends.
After the stock, process it with a hacksaw and clean it with a knife. On the bark, make five-centimeter cuts along the base, where and insert the scion tightly, cut to cut.
Important! Work on the cuts in the bark must be carried out with a sharp knife to prevent possible damage to the wood itself.
Into the cleft
The method of crossing trees must be carried out before the onset of the growing season. The preparatory step for grafting is the process of cutting off knots - on a young tree, work begins with an indentation of about 40 centimeters from the beginning of the branching of the trunk, while an old plant is processed by increasing this distance to a meter.
The graft is carried out following the instructions below:
- the base of the cutting with several buds is cut with a knife into the so-called double wedge
- the stock is cut to the required height with its further stripping
- with a knife, the stock is split exactly in the middle
- a scion is inserted into the split, so that it coincides with the bark of the rootstock bark. If the thickness of the plant allows, then up to 2 cuttings at a time are buried in the splitting site
- the grafted area of the tree is wrapped with twine, polyethylene or treated with garden pitch.
In comparison with other crossing methods, grafting with cuttings in the split is due to the best survival rate.
Into the semi-cleavage
The advantage of this grafting method lies in the slight damage to the trees.
Slices must be carried out on the side of the rootstock, namely:
- departing about 3 centimeters from the end of the cut
- split with a hatchet, but not completely
- stick the cuttings into the incision so that their tissues are in close contact with each other.
The scion is harvested in the same way as for full splitting.
Inoculation in a similar way is carried out with branches about 2 centimeters in diameter.
To begin with, an angular-type notch is made using a knife located 3 centimeters from the edge, where the cut is made to a depth of 6 millimeters, at an angle of 30. Moreover, the same cut is made in the other direction, but of a different size, about 6 centimeters.
The cut at the lower end of the cutting is made diagonally, in accordance with the cutouts made on the rootstock. The place of confluence is wrapped with a special film.
This method assumes a slanting cut with a 20 centimeter offset from the base of the twig. Moreover, the length of one side should be more than the other by a centimeter. The stalk, intended for grafting, is worn in the form of a wedge, the sides of which should also have a difference of 1 centimeter.
After such preparation, the shoot is inserted into the incision and wrapped with a protective film.
By the bridge
Grafting using the bridge method is used for fruit trees affected by hares during the winter.
The graft is placed in a circular manner, along the diameter of the trunk. The tips of the shoots are distributed just below or above the resulting wound. The cleaning of the damaged areas is carried out up to the healthy tissue of the tree. Then cut along the edges. The tips of the shoots are cut obliquely.
Initially, the graft is inserted into the bottom incisions. After the cuttings are bent into an arc and inserted into the incisions from above. The joints are wrapped with twine.
Grafting cherries to cherries can be carried out in several ways - this is the usual copulation, improved copulation, in a split or in a semi-split, behind the bark, budding. Regardless of which method is chosen, be sure to prepare all the necessary tools in advance. You should have the following tools on hand:
- eyepiece knife
- garden saw
- dense polyethylene film
- insulating tape
- varnish based paint or garden var.
The most common methods of grafting and grafting cherries include:
The budding of cherries or the method of grafting with the kidney is one of the most time-consuming and complex processes. Returning to the question “When to plant a cherry tree?”, It is necessary to clarify that this procedure is performed in mid-June.
A T-shaped incision is made on the stock with the capture of wood. A small stalk is prepared, in the central part of which there is one growth bud. The graft is placed in the groove of the rootstock, pressed tightly and fixed with foil or electrical tape. After a month, the film can be removed.
One of the most popular and widespread methods of budding cherries among gardeners is the method of grafting in the cleft. The procedure must be performed in the spring. Summer cleft budding often fails.
Let's take a closer look at this method:
- Prepare your tools.
- Choose a stock that is at least 10 cm in diameter.
- Split the tree trunk approximately 2.5–3 cm deep.
- Make an oblique cut in the form of a "sharp tongue" on the scion.
- Orifice the scion to the stock. To do this, insert the handle into the recess made and fix it securely there with electrical tape.
- To protect the tree with "wounds" from harmful insects, treat the plant with garden varnish.
Unlike previous methods, copulation is considered the easiest way to graft fruit and berry crops. Most often it is used for budding cherry for cherry or cherry for bird cherry.
The diameter of the rootstock and the scion should be almost the same. On the handle and on the tree, you need to make oblique cuts 2-3 cm long. Attach the scion tightly to the stock, rewind with foil, which can be additionally sealed with electrical tape. Treat the grafting site with garden varnish or oil paint.
Grafting into cleft
This procedure gives almost one hundred percent results. According to statistics, out of ten vaccinations in the cleft, nine take root. Good news for budding gardeners: Cherry split grafting is a snap. Therefore, there should be no difficulties with the procedure.
In contrast to the above method, split grafting is performed using a whole graft. It should have about 3-4 buds. Cut the bottom of the scion with a knife. It is desirable to make the cut length three times longer than the thickness of the shoot itself.
Wrap the cutting in a clean, lightly damp material. If the rootstock has a large diameter, then it is necessary to cut it exactly to the required height. If the thickness of the rootstock and the scion are approximately the same, then you should use a pruner. Place the knife along the saw cut diameter line.
Cut the tree three to four centimeters deep. In order for the split not to close and it would be more convenient for you to work with it in the future, insert some kind of peg or other support there. Next, you should start the scion with a cut into the place of splitting until it stops.
Wrap the wound site in a spiral method with wrapping material. Electrical tape is also suitable here (only the winding is done with the back side). Your task is to make sure that all the tissues of the rootstock and scion fit snugly together. The front side of the cleft must certainly be lubricated with garden varnish. For prophylaxis, also lubricate the tops of the cuttings.
What can be grafted on a plum
It is permissible to use a plant from the rose family as a rootstock. It is better to choose stone fruits. Apricots and peaches are often planted on plums. The resulting hybrid is frost-resistant and unpretentious. Fruiting begins 1-2 years earlier, the yield does not suffer, and the fruits become larger and more juicy.
It will not work to plant an apple or pear on a plum. They won't take root. The success rate is not more than 1%, but it may turn out to be unpredictable.
It is recommended to plant cherry plum on plums. Fruits are related crops and take root quickly. The plant becomes healthier and yields better.
The cherry on the plum is grafted and the manipulation is usually successful. The main thing is to act carefully. After manipulation, you must follow all the rules for care.
To increase the stability of the tree and other characteristics, you can graft a plum on another tree from the rose family. It will also help preserve the species or propagate it.
Almost all fruit plants can be grafted onto a plant of the pink family, with the exception of pome plants - apple trees, pears, which have cardinal differences. With the correct procedure, it will be possible to get a hardy tree.