Eurasia 21 is a rather interesting early variety of plum. But not every gardener can get positive results when growing it due to some capriciousness. Excellent consumer qualities of fruits and yield in favorable years are factors that attract gardeners. We will try to help enthusiasts to fully reveal the advantages of the variety, leveling its shortcomings as much as possible.
Description of the variety
The plum variety Eurasia 21 (sometimes simply called Eurasia) was obtained by breeders of the Voronezh State Agrarian University. It was bred by genetic engineering in a rather complex and at the same time spontaneous way. Without going into the scientific jungle, we note that cherry plum, as well as varieties and types of plums, took part in the formation of the genotype of the variety:
- East Asian;
In 1986, this hybrid was entered into the State Register and zoned for the Central Black Earth Region. Currently excluded from the State Register - for whatever reason, it was not possible to find out.
Eurasia 21 has a tall tree reaching a height of six meters, with a brown-gray trunk and branches. The crown is medium thickened, spreading. The branches grow rather quickly, outstripping the slow build-up of trunk thickness. This leads to the instability of the tree and poor resistance to strong winds. However, with age, the deficiency goes away.
The variety has a high winter hardiness of wood, roots and flower buds. The roots can withstand soil freezing down to -20 ° C, which is a very good indicator. Immunity to fungal diseases, including clasterosporiosis, is average.
The early maturation of the variety is good - the beginning of fruiting occurs in the 4-5th year after planting. Under favorable conditions, an average of 50 kg of fruit is harvested from a tree, and sometimes 80-100 kg. But these harvests are not regular. Since the variety is absolutely self-fertile, then if May (the period of plum flowering) is windy and rainy, the formation of ovaries sharply decreases, or it may simply not happen. And of course, a prerequisite for successful pollination is the presence of simultaneously flowering pollinators:
- Renklode is fruitful;
- Renklode Kolkhoz;
- Memory of Timiryazev et al.
Fruit ripening does not occur simultaneously, starting from the end of July and until the middle of August, and therefore they are harvested in several stages. The removed slightly unripe fruits are stored for up to three weeks in the refrigerator, preserving their consumer properties. The purpose of the fruit is a table one, and also tasty and aromatic juice with pulp is obtained from them.
Ripe plums have a spherical shape and a beautiful burgundy color with a waxy coating. On average, the mass of fruits is 25-30 g, and according to some sources - 35-40 g and even 50 g. The pulp is yellow-orange, juicy, with a sour-sweet, pleasant taste. The stone is medium in size, it does not separate well from the pulp.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Summarizing, let us bring together the described qualities inherent in the variety. Its advantages:
- High winter hardiness.
- Early maturity.
- High yields in a good season.
- Large beautiful fruits with excellent commercial qualities.
- Pleasant taste and aroma of fruits.
- Transportability and storage of slightly immature fruits for up to 3 weeks.
There are also many disadvantages, and among them there are significant ones:
- Self-infertility and great dependence on external conditions during the period of pollination, as a result of which the yield is irregular.
- Large tree height.
- Fast-growing branches do not withstand winds well in the first years of life.
- Susceptibility to clasterosporium disease.
- Non-simultaneous ripening of fruits.
Planting plum varieties Eurasia 21
Planting rules for Eurasia 21 plum practically do not differ from other varieties of this crop. The features include a great demand for soils - it is better suited to medium loamy and clayey with a neutral reaction (pH 6.5-7.5). On acidic soils, the plum will bear fruit very poorly and therefore they need to be deoxidized by introducing lump lime into the planting pit in an amount of 0.5-1 kg. It is also important to choose a place protected from the winds, due to the weak resistance of the branches to them in the first years. For the rest, general rules should be followed. Let us recall them briefly:
- The best time for planting is early spring, when the buds have not yet started to grow. In the southern regions, autumn planting of plums is also possible after the end of the growing season (leaf fall).
- It is better to buy seedlings in the fall, regardless of the chosen planting time.
- The planting hole should be prepared no later than 10-15 days before planting, and in case of planting in the spring, it is prepared in the fall.
- The dimensions of the pit must be at least 0.8 m in diameter and the same depth... The pit is filled with fertile soil with the addition of organic and mineral fertilizers.
Step-by-step landing instructions:
- A few hours before planting, the seedling should be removed from the storage area and its roots should be placed in a bucket of water. There you can also add drugs to stimulate root formation such as Kornevin, Epin, Heteroauxin, etc.
A few hours before planting, the seedling should be removed from the storage area and its roots should be placed in a bucket of water.
- In the center of the hole, a hole is formed with a small mound in the middle of such a size that the root system of the seedling fits freely in it.
- The seedling is lowered with its root collar on a mound and the roots are spread along its slopes.
- Carefully cover them with earth, compacting it layer by layer. After the end of the backfill, the root collar should remain at the level of the soil or 2-3 cm above it.
After the end of the backfill, the root collar should remain at the level of the soil or 2-3 cm above it.
- An earthen roller is formed around the tree to retain water.
- Water the plant 3-4 times until the water is completely absorbed.
- Mulch the soil with the available suitable material - straw, hay, peat, etc.
- The seedling is cut to a height of 0.8-1.0 m. The branches are shortened by 60-70%.
Features of growing and subtleties of care
In general, the cultivation of Eurasia 21 plum and its care are usual for this crop and we will not describe them. A feature of the variety is its tallness and rapid growth of branches, which requires timely and correct pruning. Let's dwell on this stage in more detail.
Plum pruning Eurasia
The main point of this stage is to restrain the growth of the tree by shaping its crown. As for all tall trees, for Eurasia 21 it is logical to use a sparse-tiered formation. To do this, you should:
- In the spring of the year following planting, form the first tier of skeletal branches in the following order:
- Choose 2-3 branches on the trunk, located at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other and directed in different directions, and the lower one should be located 30-40 cm from the ground.
- Shorten them by 60-70%.
- Remove all other shoots.
- Shorten the central conductor by 20-30%.
- A year later, in a similar way, form the second tier, leaving 1-2 skeletal branches in it.
- In the 4-5th year after planting, a third tier is formed, in which there will also be 1-2 branches.
- At the same time, the central conductor is cut over the base of the superior skeletal branch.
As for all tall trees, for Eurasia 21 it is logical to use a sparse-tiered formation.
In the first 2-4 years, it is also necessary to pay attention to restraining the growth of fast-growing branches, shortening them, if necessary, in the fall at the same time as sanitary pruning. In summer, the so-called minting of young shoots is carried out by shortening them by 10-20 cm, which contributes to the formation of additional overgrowing branches. This, in turn, serves as an incentive for an increase in the number of fruit buds and an increase in yield.
And you should also regularly monitor the condition of the crown, avoiding strong thickening of the internal volume. For this, shoots growing inward and upward are cut out, and dry, diseased and damaged branches are also removed.
Diseases and pests - the main types and solutions to the problem
Plum Eurasia, like most stone fruits, is susceptible to some fungal diseases, as well as attack by pests. Experienced gardeners do not expect a problem to arise, but timely and regularly carry out a simple set of preventive work. It is almost 100% guaranteed to prevent infestation by diseases and the attack of harmful insects.
Table: measures for the prevention of diseases and pests
Fungicides are chemical or biological preparations, the action of which is aimed at combating the causative agents of fungal diseases.
Insecticides - means for the destruction of harmful insects.
The most common disease of plum trees. Its second name (perforated spot) reflects the main symptom - the formation of red-brown spots on the leaves of the plant, which quickly dry out and turn into holes. It is the result of infection by the fungus Clasterosporium carpophilum, whose spores overwinter in the soil, fallen leaves and cracked bark. The first signs (the formation of spots) appear in the spring, and by the fall the disease progresses, affecting not only the leaves, but also the fruits and bark. If the plant is not treated, then this leads to its weakening, a decrease in frost resistance, the development of homoz is possible (more about it below).
The first signs of clotterosporia are the appearance of red-brown spots on the leaves
Treatment consists of removing the affected parts of the plant and treating with fungicides. The most popular are Horus, Skor, Strobi, Topaz.
The fungus, the causative agent of this disease, usually enters the plant in the spring during flowering. Its spores are carried by bees and other insects on their paws while collecting nectar. While developing, the fungus penetrates through the flower pistil into shoots and leaves. The affected parts of the plant wilt, curl and wither. From the outside, it looks like a fire burn or frost damage. Hence another name for the disease - monilial burn.
Shoots affected by moniliosis look as if scorched by fire
Immediately after detecting signs of the disease, infected shoots should be cut out, capturing 10-15 cm of healthy wood. Then sprinkle with fungicides three times with an interval of 7-10 days. It should be remembered that most of the fungicides are addictive to the fungus, therefore, treatment with drugs with the same active ingredient should be carried out more than three times per season.
In summer, moniliosis develops on fruits, causing fruit rot. This can lead to the loss of a significant part of the crop. Treatment in this case is complicated by the fact that during the period of fruit ripening, the use of many drugs is limited. Those should be used, the waiting period of which is minimal. For example, Horus (7 days), Quadris (3-5 days), Fitosporin (it can be processed on the day of harvesting) and some others.
In summer, moniliosis develops on fruits, causing fruit rot.
Gomoz (gum flow)
This is the name of a non-infectious disease, expressed in the outflow of gum from cracks or damage to the bark of a tree. This can occur due to frost cracks or diseases such as clasterosporium disease, moniliosis, etc. And also gum flow can be caused by excessive watering, moisture stagnation and an overdose of nitrogen fertilizers.
Gum discharge during gommosis looks like frozen amber drops
For the purpose of treatment, it is necessary to thoroughly clean the places where the gum is excreted and treat them with a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid. You can also use a folk remedy - rub the wound with fresh sorrel leaves three times at intervals of 10-15 minutes. After treatment, the wound is covered with a layer of garden varnish or putty.
On the plum, you can find two types of pests - yellow and black sawflies. Their difference lies only in the structure and color of the body, and the life cycle and the harm done are the same. When in the spring the buds on the plum begin to turn pink, butterflies of the sawfly fly out for the first time. They feed on pollen and nectar of plums, cherry plums, pears, etc. After about two weeks, the insects mate, and the female lays eggs in the sepals of unopened buds. After 12 days, larvae crawl out of the eggs, which harm the plant. The first larvae feed on ovaries, the second on the inner part of the fruit and bones. Damaged fruits fall off; in case of mass damage, a significant part of the crop may die. Pupation, the larvae hibernate in the soil of the trunk circles.
The defeat of a plum by a sawfly can be determined by the presence of gum droplets on the fruits.
If larvae are found in fruits, they can no longer be saved. Only bioinsecticide can be used to protect unaffected fruits.s such as Iskra-Bio, Fitoverm, Fitosporin, etc. But of course, the preventive measures described above are more effective.
This butterfly of the leafworm family is grayish-brown in color and with a wingspan of 10-15 mm in the middle lane develops in two to three generations. The flight time is June - July. Butterflies live from 4 to 15 days, and during this time they usually do not feed. Females lay eggs on fruits, much less often on the underside of leaves. After 7-11 days, larvae (caterpillars) appear, which make moves in the pulp to the base of the petiole and, damaging the vascular system, deprive the fruit of nutrition. While the fruits are young, the larva gnaws a bone, and when it becomes hard, it eats away the pulp around it and fills the space with excrement. Caterpillars of the last instar hibernate and pupate in mid-April.
The caterpillar of the plum moth gnaws the flesh of the fruit and fills the space with excrement
All the preventive measures described above effectively resist the attack of the pest. When droplets of gum appear on the fruits, it is too late to fight. In this case, you can try to save part of the crop by using biological fungicides for treatments.
The self-infertility of the variety and the narrow circle of pollinators often leave the gardener without a crop. This fact adds to the skepticism when evaluating this plum, which bears fruit of excellent quality. Therefore, it is possible to recommend Eurasia 21 for cultivation only to diligent gardeners who will provide it with high-quality pollination (for example, by planting pollinator varieties in the crown), timely pruning and other stages of care.
Hello! My name is Pyotr Vladimirovich. I am 63 years old. By education - a mechanical engineer.
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Eurasia is a hybrid plum variety bred for Central Russia. This fast-growing tree begins to bear fruit 3-4 years after planting. With good care, it gives up to 50 kg of fruits from one tree. The culture is winter-hardy, easily tolerates twenty-degree frosts.
Plum Eurasia is unpretentious in care, highly resistant to various diseases and pests. It opens the plum season as it is an early table variety that ripens in August. The fruits have a spicy sweet and sour taste and a classic plum aroma. The pulp is juicy, orange-yellow in color, with a loose structure. Suitable for processing into juices, jams and preserves. We advise you to prepare Plum Jam for the winter.
People are usually accustomed to seeing a plum of purple, blue shades on tables, store shelves. But there are varieties that have completely different colors. The yellow plum is one of those. It was obtained by crossing cherry plum, wild plum. This hybrid, due to its sweetish taste, is suitable both for the preparation of various sweets and for fresh consumption. Let's consider some varieties of yellow plum.
- It is not for nothing that it has such a name. It is due to its extraordinary honey taste, which experts rate 4.5 out of a possible 5.
- It can be grown even in the cold regions of our country. Fruits of a round shape reach 50 g. Under optimal growth conditions, one tree, 5 m high, gives up to 30 kg of berries with yellow, juicy pulp and easily detachable seed.
- The plant has an early ripening period, the first harvest can be enjoyed at the beginning of August. She is self-infertile. As a pollinator next to it, it is recommended to plant Vengerka, Renklod Karbysheva.
- Trees can easily withstand short-term drought, frost. They can be grown in all climates. Unfavorable weather does not affect the quality of the crop. Fruit can be transported without damaging it.
- "Honey" does not differ in the complexity of agricultural technology. The fruits are suitable for conservation, any other types of processing. Of the shortcomings, gardeners note the impressive size of the plant, which requires a large area.
- Obtained by the labor of Russian scientists, by crossing Renklode Ullens and Skorospelka red. Medium height tree.
- The berries are yellowish-green in color, with a small pink patch on the sunny side. The taste is pleasant, weighing about 26 g. The fruits are very aromatic. But the first crop can be harvested only after 3-4 years, after planting the tree. The huge advantage of the variety is that it is self-fertile.
- The first fruits are harvested in early to mid-August. From one small tree, up to 15 kg of fruits are obtained, which have an excellent presentation.
- Plants are undemanding to care for themselves. Among the shortcomings, it can be noted instability to spring frosts, average resistance to pests and diseases. For the winter, to protect it from severe frosts, it must be additionally covered.
- This is another variety of plum, with a yellow skin. "Firefly" is a variety of Domashny plum.
- Trees, with an average maturity of fruits, reach a height of up to 5 m. Fruits are spherical, weighing 30-40 g. The peel and pulp are yellow. The stone is easily separated from the inside of the berries. The fruit tastes sweet, with a slight sourness. Suitable for both blanks and fresh consumption.
- Fruiting begins 2 years after planting.
- It is considered frost-resistant. Drought tolerant. The plant bears fruit every year. But only with the availability of suitable pollinators. The names of the species capable of pollinating it have not yet been precisely identified.
Some sources refer to "firefly" pollinators:
- Kolkhoz renklode
- Renklode is fruitful
Peach Plum Planting Features
Pay special attention to planting a tree. Even if you then apply a lot of fertilizer, water and prune, weak seedlings will not be able to grow into strong and fertile plants. In addition, it is worth purchasing seedlings only in nurseries or gardening stores, otherwise there are great chances of buying the wrong variety.
Selection of seedlings for planting
To get a quality crop, start by choosing the right seedlings. Even the most favorable conditions will not save sick and weak plants. The seedlings should have a developed root system, no more than 5-7 main shoots. Also, the seedling should not have leaves and buds ready to bloom. It is worth buying it in early spring, while the plants are still dormant. Also check the plant for signs of disease, pests. The bark on the shoots should be uniform and shiny.
Choosing the right place
Plum likes to grow in a sunny place, well-lit and protected from the wind. Also, choose a place so that the plum has space, you should not plant it close to a fence or a house. This is especially necessary for the root system, which becomes very developed in an adult plant.
Pay attention to the cultural neighborhood. Do not plant next to pears, cherries, or cherries. A good union will turn out with apple, raspberry, gooseberry and currant.
Prefers neutral soils. Therefore, if the earth is acidic, then it can be neutralized with lime, dolomite flour or ash. See how to apply ash to your garden. Also, the soil must be made air and moisture permeable. Therefore, add coarse river sand to dense soils.
Fertilize in the fall. It can be organics or minerals. Bury rotted manure or compost on the bottom. You can also add potassium fertilizers and superphosphates, the main thing is to follow the instructions on the package.
The planting process itself is carried out as follows:
- dig a hole 60x60 cm
- place a peg in the middle
- mix part of the land with fertilizers
- pour thoroughly
- install a seedling, spread the roots and cover with earth
- the root collar should remain above the ground. Look at the material on how to determine the root collar yourself.
Tie the plant to a peg with a soft cloth so it does not tilt and grow straight. Then it is watered abundantly, the trunk circle is mulched with manure, needles or sawdust.
This hybrid has a fairly high level of frost resistance. Sharafuga can withstand temperatures of 24-26 ° C without freezing. Therefore, it is necessary to plant and care for the seedling like a plum. The annual growth of shoots is 50-80 centimeters, which indicates the need for annual rejuvenating pruning.
The sharafuga is planted in a sunny place where the soil is loose and fertile. Stagnant water in spring and clay soils are excluded as the plum gets wet. Having chosen a place, you need to prepare a landing pit measuring 60 * 60 * 60 centimeters.
It is filled with rotted manure or humus, ash and superphosphate. Saplings are planted: in the spring in the Middle Strip (so that they have time to take root), in the fall - in the South.
For 3-5 years, depending on the age of the seedlings, the sharafuga gives the first fruits. They ripen in late August or early September, depending on the region.